The Power Marketing Association

Electricity Glossary

  Acid Rain: Also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. It can be wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry precipitation (absorbed gaseous and particulate matter, aerosol particles or dust). Acid rain has a pH below 5.6. Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6, which is slightly acidic. The term pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and ranges from 0 to 14. A pH measurement of 7 is regarded as neutral. Measurements below 7 indicate increased acidity, while those above indicate increased alkalinity.

Actual Peak Load Reductions: The actual reduction in annual peak load (measured in kilowatts) achieved by consumers that participate in a utility DSM program. It reflects the real changes in the demand for electricity resulting from a utility DSM program that is in effect at the same time the utility experiences its annual peak load, as opposed to the installed peak load reduction capability (i.e., Potential Peak Load Reduction). It should account for the regular cycling of energy efficient units during the period of annual peak load.

Allowance for Funds Used During Construction (AFUDC): A noncash item representing the estimated composite interest costs of debt and a return on equity funds used to finance construction. The allowance is capitalized in the property accounts and included in income.

Ampere: The unit of measurement of electrical current produced in a circuit by 1 volt acting through a resistance of 1 ohm.

Ancillary Services: Ancillary services are those services necessary to support the transmission of energy from resources to loads while maintaining reliable operation of the Transmission Provider’s transmission system in accordance with Good Utility Practice.

Annual Effects: The total effects in energy use (measured in megawatthours) and peak load (measured in kilowatts) caused by all participants in the DSM programs that are in effect during a given year. It includes new and existing participants in existing programs (those implemented in prior years that are in place during the given year) and all participants in new programs (those implemented during the given year). The effects of new participants in existing programs and all participants in new programs should be based on their start-up dates (i.e., if participants enter a program in July, only the effects from July to December should be reported). If start-up dates are unknown and cannot be reasonably estimated, the effects can be annualized (i.e., assume the participants were initiated into the program on January 1 of the given year). The Annual Effects should consider the useful life of efficiency measures, by accounting for building demolition, equipment degradation and attrition.

Annual Transmission Costs: The total annual cost of the Transmission System shall be the amount specified in Schedule 1 until amended by the Transmission Provider or modified by the Commission.

Anthracite: A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and low percentage of volatile matter.

Ash: Impurities consisting of silica, iron, alumina, and other noncombustible matter that are contained in coal. Ash increases the weight of coal, adds to the cost of handling, and can affect its burning characteristics. Ash content is measured as a percent by weight of coal on an "as received" or a "dry" (moisture-free, usually part of a laboratory analysis) basis.

Asset: An economic resource, tangible or intangible, which is expected to provide benefits to a business.

Available but not Needed Capability: Net capability of main generating units that are operable but not considered necessary to carry load, and cannot be connected to load within 30 minutes.

Average Revenue per Kilowatt-hour: The average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold by sector (residential, commercial, industrial, or other) and geographic area (State, Census division, and National), is calculated by dividing the total monthly revenue by the corresponding total monthly sales for each sector and geographic area.

Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons.

Base Bill: A charge calculated through multiplication of the rate from the appropriate electric rate schedule by the level of consumption.

Baseload: The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period of time at a steady rate.

Baseload Capacity: The generating equipment normally operated to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.

Baseload Plant: A plant, usually housing high efficiency steam-electric units, which is normally operated to take all or part of the minimum load of a system, and which consequently produces electricity at an essentially constant rate and runs continuously. These units are operated to maximize system mechanical and thermal efficiency and minimize system operating costs.

Bbl: The abbreviation for barrel.

Bcf: The abbreviation for 1 billion cubic feet.

Bituminous Coal: The most common coal. It is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and full material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. It is used for generating electricity, making coke, and space heating. Comprises five groups classified according to the following ASTM Specification D388-84, on a dry mineral-matter-free (mmf) basis for fixed-carbon and volatile matter and a moist mmf basis for calorific value.

LV = Low volatile bituminous coal

MV = Medium volatile bituminous coal

HVA = High volatile A bituminous coal

HVB = High volatile B bituminous coal

HVC = High volatile C bituminous coal

Boiler: A device for generating steam for power, processing, or heating purposes or for producing hot water for heating purposes or hot water supply. Heat from an external combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes in the boiler shell. This fluid is delivered to an end-use at a desired pressure, temperature, and quality.

Btu (British Thermal Unit): A standard unit for measuring the quantity of heat energy equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

Capability: The maximum load that a generating unit, generating station, or other electrical apparatus can carry under specified conditions for a given period of time without exceeding approved limits of temperature and stress.

Capacity: The amount of electric power delivered or required for which a generator, turbine, transformer, transmission circuit, station, or system is rated by the manufacturer.

Capacity (Purchased): The amount of energy and capacity available for purchase from outside the system.

Capacity Charge: An element in a two-part pricing method used in capacity transactions (energy charge is the other element). The capacity charge, sometimes called Demand Charge, is assessed on the amount of capacity being purchased.

Capital (Financial): The line items on the right side of a balance sheet that include debt, preferred stock, and common equity. A net increase in assets must be financed by an increase in one or more forms of capital.

Census Divisions: The nine geographic divisions of the United States established by the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, for the purpose of statistical analysis. The boundaries of Census divisions coincide with state boundaries. The Pacific Division is subdivided into the Pacific Contiguous and Pacific Noncontiguous areas.

Circuit: A conductor or a system of conductors through which electric current flows.

Coal: A black or brownish-black solid combustible substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. The rank of coal, which includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, is based on fixed carbon, volatile matter, and heating value. Coal rank indicates the progressive alteration from lignite to anthracite. Lignite contains approximately 9 to 17 million Btu per ton. The contents of subbituminous and bituminous coal range from 16 to 24 million Btu per ton and from 19 to 30 million Btu per ton, respectively. Anthracite contains approximately 22 to 28 million Btu per ton.

Cogenerator: A generating facility that produces electricity and another form of useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam) used for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes. To receive status as a qualifying facility (QF) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the facility must produce electric energy and "another form of useful thermal energy through the sequential use of energy," and meet certain ownership, operating, and efficiency criteria established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). (See the code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 292.)

Coincidental Demand: The sum of two or more demands that occur in the same time interval.

Coincidental Peak Load: The sum of two or more peak loads that occur in the same time interval.

Coke (Petroleum): A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking. This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke. The conversion factor is 5 barrels (42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton.

Combined Cycle: An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one more gas (combustion) turbines. The exiting heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. This process increases the efficiency of the electric generating unit.

Combined Cycle Unit: An electric generating unit that consists of one or more combustion turbines and one or more boilers with a portion of the required energy input to the boiler(s) provided by the exhaust gas of the combustion turbine(s).

Combined Pumped-Storage Plant: A pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant that uses both pumped water and natural streamflow to produce electricity.

Commercial: The commercial sector is generally defined as nonmanufacturing business establishments, including hotels, motels, restaurants, wholesale businesses, retail stores, and health, social, and educational institutions. The utility may classify commercial service as all consumers whose demand or annual use exceeds some specified limit. The limit may be set by the utility based on the rate schedule of the utility.

Commercial Operation: Commercial operation begins when control of the loading of the generator is turned over to the system dispatcher.

Commission: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

Connection: The physical connection (e.g. transmission lines, transformers, switch gear, etc.) between two electric systems permitting the transfer of electric energy in one or both directions.

Conservation and Other DSM: This Demand-Side Management category represents the amount of consumer peak load reduction at the time of system peak due to utility programs that reduce consumer load during many hours of the year. Examples include utility rebate and shared savings activities for the installation of energy efficient appliances, lighting and electrical machinery, and weatherization materials. In addition, this category includes all other Demand-Side Management activities, such as thermal storage, time-of-use rates, fuel substitutions, measurement and evaluation, and any other utility-administered Demand-Side Management activity designed to reduce demand and/or electricity use.

Construction Work In Progress (CWIP): The balance shown on a utility’s balance sheet for construction work not yet completed but in process. This balance line item may or may not be included in the rate base.

Consumption (Fuel): The amount of fuel used for gross generation, providing standby service, start-up and/or flame stabilization.

Contract Price: Price of fuels marketed on a contract basis covering a period of 1 or more years. Contract prices reflect market conditions at the time the contract was negotiated and therefore remain constant throughout the life of the contract or are adjusted through escalation clauses. Generally, contract prices do not fluctuate widely.

Contract Receipts: Purchases based on a negotiated agreement that generally covers a period of 1 or more years.

Control Area: An electric power system or combination of electric power systems to which a common automatic control scheme is applied in order to: (1) match, at all times, the power output of the generators within the electric power system(s) and capacity and energy purchased from entities outside the electric power system(s), with the load in the electric power system(s); (2) maintain, within the limits of Good Utility Practice, scheduled interchange with other Control Areas; (3) maintain the frequency of the electric power system(s) within reasonable limits in accordance with Good Utility Practice; and (4) provide sufficient generating capacity to maintain operating reserves in accordance with Good Utility Practice.

Cooling System: Energy Efficiency program promotion aimed at improving the efficiency of the cooling delivery system, including replacement, in the residential, commercial, or industrial sectors.

Cooperative Electric Utility: An electric utility legally established to be owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its service. The utility company will generate, transmit, and/or distribute supplies of electric energy to a specified area not being serviced by another utility. Such ventures are generally exempt from Federal income tax laws. Most electric cooperatives have been initially financed by the Rural Electrification Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Cost: The amount paid to acquire resources, such as plant and equipment, fuel, or labor services.

Current (Electric): A flow of electrons in an electrical conductor. The strength or rate of movement of the electricity is measured in amperes.

Delivering Party: The entity supplying the capacity and/or energy to be transmitted at Point(s) of Receipt.

Demand (Electric): The rate at which electric energy is delivered to or by a system, part of a system or piece of equipment, at a given instant or averaged over any designated period of time.

Demand-Side Management: The planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify patterns of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand. It refers only to energy and load-shape modifying activities that are undertaken in response to utility-administered programs. It does not refer to energy and load-shape changes arising from the normal operation of the marketplace or from government-mandated energy efficiency standards. Demand-Side Management (DSM) covers the complete range of load-shape objectives, including strategic conservation and load management, as well as strategic load growth.

Demand-Side Management Costs: The costs incurred by the utility to achieve the capacity and energy savings from the Demand-Side Management Program. Costs (expenditures) incurred by consumers or third parties are to be excluded. The costs are to be reported in nominal dollars in the year in which they are incurred, regardless of when the savings occur. Program costs include expensed items incurred to implement the program, incentive payments provided to consumers to install Demand-Side Management measures, and annual operation and maintenance expenses incurred during the year. Utility costs that are general, administrative, or not specific to a particular Demand-Side Management category are to be included in "other" costs.

Designated Agent: Any entity that performs actions or functions on behalf of the Transmission Provider, an eligible Customer or the Transmission Customer required under the Tariff.

Direct Load Control: Refers to program activities that can interrupt consumer load at the time of annual peak load by direct control of the utility system operator by interrupting power supply to individual appliances or equipment on consumer premises. This type of control usually involves residential consumers. Direct Load Control excludes Interruptible Load and Other Load Management effects. (Direct Load Control, as defined here, is synonymous with Direct Load Control Management reported to the North American Electric Reliability Council on the voluntary Office of Energy Emergency Operations Form OE-411, "Coordinated Regional Bulk Power Supply Program Report," with the exception that annual peak load effects are reported here and seasonal (i.e., summer and winter) peak load effects are reported on the OE-411).

Direct Utility Cost: A utility cost that is identified with one of the DSM program categories (i.e., Energy Efficiency, Direct Load Control, Interruptible Load, Other Load Management, Other DSM Programs, Load Building).

Distillate Fuel Oil: A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It is used primarily for space heating, on-and-off-highway diesel engine fuel (including railroad engine fuel and fuel for agriculture machinery), and electric power generation. Included are Fuel Oils No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4; and Diesel Fuels No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4.

Distribution System: The portion of an electric system that is dedicated to delivering electric energy to an end user.

Diversity Exchange: An exchange of capacity or energy, or both, between systems whose peak loads occur at different times.

Electric Plant (Physical): A facility containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or fission energy into electric energy.

Electric Rate Schedule: A statement of the electric rate and the terms and conditions governing its application, including attendant contract terms and conditions that have been accepted by a regulatory body with appropriate oversight authority.

Electric Utility: A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns and/or operates facilities within the United States, its territories, or Puerto Rico for the generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy primarily for use by the public and files forms listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 141. Facilities that qualify as cogenerators or small power producers under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) are not considered electric utilities.

Energy: The capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) or the conversion of this capability to motion (kinetic energy). Energy has several forms, some of which are easily convertible and can be changed to another form useful for work. Most of the world’s convertible energy comes from fossil fuels that are burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or other means in order to accomplish tasks. Electrical energy is usually measured in kilowatt-hours, while heat energy is usually measured in British thermal units.

Energy Charge: That portion of the charge for electric service based upon the electric energy (kWh) consumed or billed.

Energy Deliveries: Energy generated by one electric utility system and delivered to another system through one or more transmission lines.

Energy Effects: The changes in aggregate electricity use (measured in megawatthours) for customers that participate in a utility DSM program. Energy Effects should represent changes at the consumer meter (i.e., exclude transmission and distribution effects) and reflect only activities that are undertaken specifically in response to utility-administered programs, including those activities implemented by third parties under contract to the utility. To the extent possible, Energy Effects should exclude non-program related effects such as changes in energy usage attributable to nonparticipants, government-mandated energy efficiency standards that legislate improvements in building and appliance energy usage, changes in consumer behavior that result in greater energy use after initiation in a DSM program, the natural operations of the marketplace, and weather and business cycle adjustments.

Energy Efficiency: Refers to programs that are aimed at reducing the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the services provided. These programs reduce overall electricity consumption (reported in megawatthours), often without explicit consideration for the timing of program-induced savings. Such savings are generally achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment to produce the same level of end-use services (e.g. lighting, heating, motor drive) with less electricity. Examples include high-efficiency appliances, efficient lighting programs, high-efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems or control modifications, efficient building design, advanced electric motor drives, and heat recovery systems.

Energy Receipts: Energy generated by one electric utility system and received by another system through one or more transmission lines.

Energy Source: The primary source that provides the power that is converted to electricity through chemical, mechanical, or other means. Energy sources include coal, petroleum and petroleum products, gas, water, uranium, wind, sunlight, geothermal, and other sources.

Equity Capital: The sum of capital from retained earnings and the issuance of stocks.

Expenditure: The incurrence of a liability to obtain an asset or service.

Facility: An existing or planned location or site at which prime movers, electric generators, and/or equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or nuclear energy into electric energy are situated, or will be situated. A facility may contain more than one generator of either the same or different prime mover type. For a cogenerator, the facility includes the industrial or commercial process.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): A quasi-independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy having jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification.

Federal Power Act: Enacted in 1920 and amended in 1935, the Act consists of three parts. The first part incorporated the Federal Water Power Act administered by the former Federal Power Commission, whose activities were confined almost entirely to licensing non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Parts II and III were added with the passage of the Public Utility Act. These parts extended the Act’s jurisdiction to include regulating the interstate transmission of electrical energy and rates for its sale as wholesale in interstate commerce. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is now charged with the administration of this law.

Federal Power Commission: The predecessor agency of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The Federal Power Commission (FPC) was created by an Act of Congress under the Federal Water Power Act on June 10, 1920. It was charged originally with regulating the electric power and natural gas industries. The FPC was abolished on September 20, 1977, when the Department of Energy was created. The functions of the FPC were divided between the Department of Energy and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

FERC: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

Firm Gas: Gas sold on a continuous and generally long-term contract.

Firm Power: Power or power producing capacity intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions.

Firm Transmission Service: Point-to-point transmission service that is reserved and/or scheduled for a term of one year or more and that is of the same priority as that of the Transmission Provider’s firm use of the transmission system. Firm Transmission service that is reserved and/or scheduled for a term of less than one year shall be considered Short-Term Firm Transmission Service for the purposes of service liability.

Flue Gas Desulfurization Unit (Scrubber): Equipment used to remove sulfur oxides from the combustion gases of a boiler plant before discharge to the atmosphere. Chemicals, such as lime, are used as the scrubbing media.

Flue Gas Particulate Collectors: Equipment used to remove fly ash from the combustion gases of a boiler plant before discharge to the atmosphere. Particulate collectors include electrostatic precipitators, mechanical collectors (cyclones), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet scrubbers.

Fly Ash: Particle matter from coal ash in which the particle diameter is less than 1 x 10-4 meter. This is removed from the flue gas using flue gas particulate collectors such as fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators.

Fossil Fuel: Any naturally occurring organic fuel, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Fossil-Fuel Plant: A plant using coal, petroleum, or gas as its source of energy.

Fuel: Any substance that can be burned to produce heat; also, materials that can be fissioned in a chain reaction to produce heat.

Fuel Expenses: These costs include the fuel used in the production of steam or driving another prime mover for the generation of electricity. Other associated expenses include unloading the shipped fuel and all handling of the fuel up to the point where it enters the first bunker, hopper, bucket, tank, or holder in the boiler house structure.

Full-Forced Outage: The net capability of main generating units that are unavailable for load for emergency reasons.

Gas: A fuel burned under boilers and by internal combustion engines for electric generation. These include natural, manufactured, and waste gas.

Gas Turbine Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a gas turbine. A gas turbine consists typically of an axial-flow air compressor, one or more combustion chambers, where liquid or gaseous fuel is burned and the hot gases are passed to the turbine and where the hot gases expand to drive the generator and are then used to run the compressor.

Generating Unit: Any combination of physically connected generator(s), reactor(s), boiler(s), combustion turbine(s), or other prime mover(s) operated together to produce electric power.

Generation (Electricity): The process of producing electric energy by transforming other forms of energy; also, the amount of electric energy produced, expressed in watt-hours (Wh).

Gross Generation: The total amount of electric energy produced by the generating units at a generating station or stations, measured at the generator terminals.

Net Generation: Gross generation less the electric energy consumed at the generating station for station use.

Generator: A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Generator Nameplate Capacity: The full-load continuous rating of a generator, prime mover, or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions as designated by the manufacturer. Installed generator nameplate rating is usually indicated on a nameplate physically attached to the generator.

Geothermal Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a steam turbine. The turbine is driven either by steam produced from hot water or by natural steam that derives its energy from heat found in rocks or fluids at various depths beneath the surface of the earth. The energy is extracted by drilling and/or pumping.

Gigawatt (GW): One billion watts.

Gigawatthour (GWh): One billion watt-hours.

Good Utility Practice: Any of the practices, methods, and acts engaged in or approved by a significant portion of the electric utility industry during the relevant time period, or any of the practices, methods, and acts which, in the exercise of reasonable judgment in light of the facts known at the time the decision was made, could have been expected to accomplish the desired result of the lowest reasonable cost consistent with good business practices, reliability, safety and expedition. Good Utility Practice is not intended to be limited to the optimum practice, method, or act to the exclusion of all others, but rather to be acceptable practices, methods, or acts generally accepted in the region and consistently adhered to by the Transmission Provider.

Greenhouse Effect: The increasing mean global surface temperature of the earth caused by gases in the atmosphere (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbon). The greenhouse effect allows solar radiation to penetrate but absorbs the infrared radiation returning to space.

Grid: The layout of an electrical distribution system.

Heating System: Energy Efficiency program promotion aimed at improving the efficiency of the heating delivery system, including replacement, in the residential, commercial, or industrial sectors.

Heavy Oil: The fuel oils remaining after the lighter oils have been distilled off during the refining process. Except for start-up and flame stabilization, virtually all petroleum used in steam plants is heavy oil.

Hourly Non-Firm Transmission Service: Point-to-point transmission that is scheduled and paid for on an as-available basis and is subject to interruption.

Hydroelectric Plant: A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by falling water.

Incremental Effects: The annual effects in energy use (measured in megawatthours) and peak load (measured in kilowatts) caused by new participants in existing DSM programs and all participants in new DSM programs during a given year. Reported Incremental Effects should be annualized to indicate the program effects that would have occurred had these participants been initiated into the program on January 1 of the given year. Incremental effects are not simply the Annual Effects of a given year minus the Annual Effects of the prior year, since these net effects would fail to account for program attrition, degradation, demolition, and participant dropouts.

Indirect Utility Cost: A utility cost that may not be meaningfully identified with any particular DSM program category. Indirect costs could be attributable to one of several accounting cost categories (i.e., Administrative, Marketing, Monitoring & Evaluation, Utility-Earned Incentives, Other). Accounting costs that are known DSM program costs should not be reported under Indirect Utility Cost, rather those costs should be reported as Direct Utility Costs under the appropriate DSM program category.

Industrial: The industrial sector is generally defined as manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing, and forestry establishments (Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] codes 01-39). The utility may classify industrial service using the SIC codes, or based on demand or annual usage exceeding some specified limit. The limit may be set by the utility based on the rate schedule of the utility.

Interdepartmental Service (Electric): Interdepartmental service includes amounts charged by the electric department at tariff or other specified rates for electricity supplied by it to other utility departments.

Intermediate Load (Electric System): The range from base load to a point between base load and peak. This point may be the midpoint, a percent of the peakload, or the load over a specified time period.

Internal Combustion Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is an internal combustion engine. An internal combustion engine has one or more cylinders in which the process of combustion takes place, converting energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy. Diesel or gas-fired engines are the principal types used in electric plants. The plant is usually operated during periods of high demand for electricity.

Interruptible Gas: Gas sold to customers with a provision that permits curtailment or cessation of service at the discretion of the distributing company under certain circumstances, as specified in the service contract.

Interruptible Load: Refers to program activities that, in accordance with contractual arrangements, can interrupt consumer load at times of seasonal peak load by direct control of the utility system operator or by action of the consumer at the direct request of the system operator. It usually involves commercial and industrial consumers. In some instances the load reduction may be affected by direct action of the system operator (remote tripping) after notice to the consumer in accordance with contractual provisions. For example, loads that can be interrupted to fulfill planning or operation reserve requirements should be reported as Interruptible Load. Interruptible Load as defined here excludes Direct Load Control and Other Load Management. (Interruptible Load, as reported here, is synonymous with Interruptible Demand reported to the North American Electric Reliability Council on the voluntary Office of Energy Emergency Operations Form OE-411, "Coordinated Regional Bulk Power Supply Program Report," with the exception that annual peak load effects are reported on the Form EIA-861 and seasonal (i.e., summer and winter) peak load effects are reported on the OE-411).

Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts.

Kilowatt-hour (kWh): One thousand watt-hours.

Leverage Ratio: A measure that indicates the financial ability to meet debt service requirements and increase the value of the investment to the stockholders (i.e., the ratio of total debt to total assets).

Liability: An amount payable in dollars or by future services to be rendered.

Light Oil: Lighter fuel oils distilled off during the refining process. Virtually all petroleum used in internal combustion and gas turbine engines is light oil.

Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low rank with high inherent moisture and volatile matter (used almost exclusively for electric power generation). It is also referred to as brown coal. Comprises two groups classified according to the following ASTM Specification D388-84 for calorific values on a moist material-matter-free basis:

Load (Electric): The amount of electric power delivered or required at any specific point or points on a system. The requirement originates at the energy consuming equipment of the consumers.

Load Building: Refers to programs that are aimed at increasing the usage of existing electric equipment or the addition of electric equipment. Examples include industrial technologies such as induction heating and melting, direct arc furnaces and infrared drying; cooking for commercial establishments; and heat pumps for residences. Load Building should include programs that promote electric fuel substitution. Load Building effects should be reported as a negative number, shown with a minus sign.

Load Ratio Share: Ratio of a Transmission Customer’s Network Load to the Transmission Provider’s total load computed in accordance with Sections 11.2 and 11.3 and calculated on a rolling twelve month basis.

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